Mario Bačić, Danijela Marčić, Tea Peršun

Last modified: 2017-02-28


Urbanization process inevitably leads to lack of suitable construction surfaces for further development activities. Therefore, locations which were in past neglected, due to their inadequate ground characteristics, are nowadays reconsidered for construction purposes. In order to enhance geotechnical characteristics of ground, various ground improvement techniques have been developed. This paper discusses existing technologies which use man-made or natural materials in ground improvement process. One of the biggest issues, regarding technologies which use cement or lime as binder, is in their environmental impact. To produce one ton of improved soil, grouting and admixture techniques require 20 kg of cement or lime which release 18 kg of CO2 into atmosphere. Hence, these technologies are environmentally suboptimal and there is a large potential in developing new methods which tend to reduce environmental footprint. This can be achieved by partially replacing standard binders with fly ash, which is residual waste material. Other possibility of achieving sustainability is replacement of standard gravel or crushed rock aggregate in stone columns technique with industrial slag. Application of waste materials in sustainable ground improvement is a rapidly-developing research area. Besides potential environmental benefits, utilization of waste materials would also solve issue of their disposal, what is significant due to large deposit amounts of fly ash and slag in region.


ground improvement; sustainability; fly ash; slag; deep soil mixing; vibro-stone columns

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